16 March, 2007

Classification of Generators - Series,Shunt,Compound

Generators are usually classified according to the way in which their fields are excited.The field windings provide the excitation necessary to set up the magnetic fields in the machine. There are various types of field windings that can be used in the generator or motor circuit. In addition to the following field winding types, permanent magnet fields are used on some smaller DC products.Generators may be divided in to (a) Separately-excited generators and (b) Self-excited generators.
(a) Separately-excited generators are those whoe field magnets are energised from an independent external source of DC current.
(b) Self-excited generators are those whose field magnets are energused by the current produced by the generators themselves.Due to residual magnetism, there is always present someflux in the poles.When the armature is rotated, some e.m.f and hence some induced current is produced which is partly or fully passed through the field coils thereby strengthening the residual pole flux.

Self-excited generators are classed according to the type of field connection they use. There are three general types of field connections — SERIES-WOUND, SHUNT-WOUND (parallel), and COMPOUND-WOUND. Compound-wound generators are further classified as cumulative-compound and differential-compound.

Series-wound generator
In the series-wound generator, shown in figure, the field windings are connected in series with the armature. Current that flows in the armature flows through the external circuit and through the field windings. The external circuit connected to the generator is called the load circuit
A series-wound generator uses very low resistance field coils, which consist of a few turns of large diameter wire.

The voltage output increases as the load circuit starts drawing more current. Under low-load current conditions, the current that flows in the load and through the generator is small. Since small current means that a small magnetic field is set up by the field poles, only a small voltage is induced in the armature. If the resistance of the load decreases, the load current increases. Under this condition, more current flows through the field. This increases the magnetic field and increases the output voltage. A series-wound dc generator has the characteristic that the output voltage varies with load current. This is undesirable in most applications. For this reason, this type of generator is rarely used in everyday practice.

Shunt wound
In this field winding is connected in parallel with the armature conductors and have the full voltage of the generator applied across them.The field coils consist of many turns of small wire. They are connected in parallel with the load. In other words, they are connected across the output voltage of the armature.

Current in the field windings of a shunt-wound generator is independent of the load current (currents in parallel branches are independent of each other). Since field current, and therefore field strength, is not affected by load current, the output voltage remains more nearly constant than does the output voltage of the series-wound generator.

In actual use, the output voltage in a dc shunt-wound generator varies inversely as load current varies. The output voltage decreases as load current increases because the voltage drop across the armature resistance increases (E = IR).

In a series-wound generator, output voltage varies directly with load current. In the shunt-wound generator, output voltage varies inversely with load current. A combination of the two types can overcome the disadvantages of both. This combination of windings is called the compound-wound dc generator.

Compound-wound generator :
Compound-wound generators have a series-field winding in addition to a shunt-field winding, as shown in figure. The shunt and series windings are wound on the same pole pieces. They can be either short-shunt or long-shunt as shown in figures. In a comound generator, the shunt field is stronger than the series field.When series field aids the shunt field, generator is said to be commutatively-compounded.On the other hand if series field opposes the shunt field,the generator is said to be differentially compounded.

In the compound-wound generator when load current increases, the armature voltage decreases just as in the shunt-wound generator. This causes the voltage applied to the shunt-field winding to decrease, which results in a decrease in the magnetic field. This same increase in load current, since it flows through the series winding, causes an increase in the magnetic field produced by that winding.

By proportioning the two fields so that the decrease in the shunt field is just compensated by the increase in the series field, the output voltage remains constant. This is shown in figure, which shows the voltage characteristics of the series-, shunt-, and compound-wound generators. As you can see, by proportioning the effects of the two fields (series and shunt), a compound-wound generator provides a constant output voltage under varying load conditions. Actual curves are seldom, if ever, as perfect as shown.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

I'm not quite sure with graph A & B as if the current is inversely proportionate to voltage in a shunt wound generator how come the slope is increasing? and vice verca on a series generator. Anyway this is a helpful web-page. Thnax :)- Iroshan